Beer brewing and drinking are activities that have been part of the human experience seemingly since the dawn of civilization. Around 10,000 years ago, mankind began to move away from living life as nomadic hunter gatherers, and began settling down in one spot to farm the land. Grain, a vital ingredient in beer making, was cultivated by these new agricultural societies.
No one is exactly sure how the process of beer making was discovered or who first discovered it, but it is thought that some bread or grain got wet, fermenting into an inebriating pile of mush thanks to yeast in the air.
Until recently, scientists had only identified six basic human emotions: happy, sad, fearful, angry, surprised and disgusted.
These “emotion categories,” as cognitive scientists like to call them, are defined by the facial muscles we use to express each emotion.
In a new study published this week in the journal PNAS, Aleix Martinez, an associate professor at Ohio State University and his colleagues have identified 15 additional “compound emotions.” These are expressed by combining the basic emotions, much like using the primary colors blue and red to create purple.
Since 1980, when the Rubik’s Cube was first marketed by the Ideal Toy Corp – a New York company founded by Morris Michtom, a Russian-Jewish émigré and his American wife, Rose, after they had invented another famous best-seller, the Teddy Bear – this intriguing plastic Cube, has perplexed millions of people. Although some give up on the attempt, many more have been determined to solve this complex, three-dimensional mathematical puzzle.
There is even a loosely associated international group of Speedcubers whose members aim to beat the world Rubik’s Cube solving record. The current record, set last year, is held – according to the World Cube Association – by Mats Valk of the Netherlands, with a time of just 5.55 seconds. Mats was 16 years old at the time.