“Semordnilap” is a word playfully coined by word-game lovers some time in the mid 20th century. While a palindrome reads the same way backwards or forwards (otto, kayak), a semordnilap (itself a semordnilap of “palindromes”) makes a completely different word when spelled backwards. While there are some semordnilaps that arose by chance (desserts-stressed, diaper-repaid), there are many, like “semordnilap,” that were created on purpose, usually to not-so-covertly hint at the words they happen to be reversing. Here are 9 words, besides semordnilap, expressly built to be semordnilaps.
Beer brewing and drinking are activities that have been part of the human experience seemingly since the dawn of civilization. Around 10,000 years ago, mankind began to move away from living life as nomadic hunter gatherers, and began settling down in one spot to farm the land. Grain, a vital ingredient in beer making, was cultivated by these new agricultural societies.
No one is exactly sure how the process of beer making was discovered or who first discovered it, but it is thought that some bread or grain got wet, fermenting into an inebriating pile of mush thanks to yeast in the air.
Until recently, scientists had only identified six basic human emotions: happy, sad, fearful, angry, surprised and disgusted.
These “emotion categories,” as cognitive scientists like to call them, are defined by the facial muscles we use to express each emotion.
In a new study published this week in the journal PNAS, Aleix Martinez, an associate professor at Ohio State University and his colleagues have identified 15 additional “compound emotions.” These are expressed by combining the basic emotions, much like using the primary colors blue and red to create purple.